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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 28-32

Pattern of ankle brachial index among adults in Sagamu South-West Nigeria


1 Department of Family Medicine, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria
2 Department of Internal Medicine, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Oluseun O Adeko
Department of Family Medicine, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0189-7969.173856

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Background: The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a ratio of Doppler recorded ankle and brachial systolic blood pressure. ABI value of <0.9 is diagnostic of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. ABI is a simple and noninvasive tool that can be used in primary care as part of cardiovascular risk assessment. Objectives: To determine the pattern of ABI, the prevalence of PAD, and the risk factors for low ABI. Subjects and Methods: Four hundred subjects aged 50 years and above were selected by systematic random sampling. Their demographic data and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed, and their ABI was measured. ABI value of ≤0.9 was taken as low ABI indicating PAD while a value >1.3 was taken as high ABI indicating arterial calcification. Results: Two hundred and eighty-eight (72.0%) of the participants had normal ABI, 99 (24.8%) had low ABI indicating PAD, and 13 (3.3%) had high ABI. The prevalence of low ABI increased from 4.9% between 50 and 59 years to 25.3% and 58.7% between 60 and 69 and ≥70 years, respectively. The risk factors for low ABI were age (P = 0.00), history of hypertension (P = 0.03), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (P = 0.00). Conclusion: 24.8% of the participants had low ABI indicating PAD. The prevalence of PAD increases by 5–10 folds after the fifth decade of life. Low ABI was associated with advancing age, DM, and hypertension.


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