Hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors in a semi-nomadic Fulani population in Kano, Nigeria
Kamilu Musa Karaye1, Muzammil M Yakasai1, Umar Abdullahi1, Muhammad Hamza1, Mahmood M Dalhat1, Baffa A Gwaram1, Zaiyad G Habib1, Musa M Bello2, Ahmad M Yakasai3, Aisha H Sadauki4, Faruk Sarkin-Fada5, Usman B Abubakar6, Abdulrazaq G Habib1
1 Department of Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital/Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
2 Department of Community Medicine, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
3 Public Health and Diagnostic Institute, College of Medical Sciences, Northwest University, Kano, Nigeria
4 Department of Paediatrics, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
5 Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
6 Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Kamilu Musa Karaye
Department of Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital/Bayero University, P O Box 4445, Kano
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Kano has been described to have the highest burden of hypertension and dyslipidemia in Nigeria. It is not known whether the epidemiologic transition in Kano cuts across all socio-demographic strata. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of hypertension and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among a semi-nomadic Fulani population in Kano, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: The study was cross-sectional and carried out in Tofa village, Rano Local Government of Kano State, Nigeria. All semi-nomadic Fulani adults in Tofa and the surrounding hamlets were invited to participate in the study.
Results: A total of 214 consecutive subjects were studied; 57.0% were males and 43.0% were females. The main occupations of the subjects were cattle rearing, subsistence farming and petty trading. The most prevalent CVD risk factor was hypertension found in 28.5% of the subjects. Only 39.3% of the hypertensives were aware of it, and only 25% of the known-hypertensives were taking anti-hypertensive treatment. Age was the only independent predictor of hypertension after controlling for confounding factors, and for every increase in age by 1 year, the risk of developing hypertension was increased by 6.6% (confidence interval, CI = 3.3-9.0; P < 0.001). Body mass index, plasma glucose, and hematocrit were higher among hypertensives than non-hypertensives (P < 0.05). Other CVD risk factors were uncommon.
Conclusion: In the study, hypertension was common; its levels of awareness and treatment were low and mainly determined by increased age. "Western" lifestyle seems to be related to its development as age increased.