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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 65-70

Ischemia modified albumin in myocardial infarction and its correlation with selected acute phase reactants


1 Department of Biochemistry, Central Laboratory, Suraksha Diagnostic Private Limited, Saltlake, Kolkata, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, Murshidabad Medical College, Berhampore, Murshidabad, India
3 Department of General Medicine, College of Medicine and JNM Hospital, Kalyani, India
4 Department of Biochemistry, Malda Medical College and Hospital, Malda, West Bengal, India

Date of Web Publication30-Jul-2015

Correspondence Address:
Angshuman De
Building Name Anamika, Flat No. 6, P-68, Subodh Park, P.S.+P.O. Bansdroni, Kolkata - 700 070, West Bengal
India
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Source of Support: Department of Biochemistry, Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, Department of Cardiology, Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0189-7969.152028

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  Abstract 

Background: There is evidence that ischemia modified albumin increases (IMA) in acute coronary syndrome, but enough work has not been done in assessing the correlation between IMA and inflammatory markers in myocardial infarction (MI).
Objective: The objective of the present study was to observe whether IMA would significantly be altered in MI patients and also whether the same would be correlated with selected acute phase reactants.
Methods: The present hospital based, noninterventional, cross-sectional study was undertaken in Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata. Fifty cases of acute MI (AMI) and 50 suitable controls were enrolled for the study. Serum IMA, serum albumin, serum total cholesterol, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), serum ceruloplasmin and serum transferrin were measured in blood from the study population.
Results: Serum IMA and hsCRP (P < 0.0005) were significantly higher in cases whereas serum transferrin (P < 0.0005) and albumin (P < 0.005) were significantly lower in cases as compared to controls. In cases, IMA was found to be positively correlated (r = 0.470, P = 0.001) with hsCRP, one of the common markers of inflammation in AMI. Serum IMA, hsCRP and transferrin play a significant role (P < 0.05) in assessing the severity of inflammation.
Conclusion: Serum IMA was altered in AMI patients and positive correlation was obtained between IMA and positive acute phase reactant hsCRP. This study encourages future studies probing the role of inflammation in the causation of MI.

Keywords: Albumin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, ischemia modified albumin, myocardial infarction, transferrin


How to cite this article:
Chowdhury N, De A, Bhattacharya R, Chakraborty I. Ischemia modified albumin in myocardial infarction and its correlation with selected acute phase reactants. Nig J Cardiol 2015;12:65-70

How to cite this URL:
Chowdhury N, De A, Bhattacharya R, Chakraborty I. Ischemia modified albumin in myocardial infarction and its correlation with selected acute phase reactants. Nig J Cardiol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Jul 16];12:65-70. Available from: http://www.nigjcardiol.org/text.asp?2015/12/2/65/152028


  Introduction Top


Acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) represent a continuum of disease ranging from unstable angina (UA), associated with reversible myocardial cell injury, to frank ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with large areas of necrosis. In the majority of patients presenting with ACSs, [1] the thrombus is partially obstructive or only transiently occlusive, resulting in coronary ischemia without persistent ST-segment elevation (UA or non-ST-elevation MI). [2] In the remaining 30% of patients with ACS, the intracoronary thrombus completely occludes the culprit vessel, resulting in STEMI. The contribution of inflammation to the pathogenesis of ACS [2] has attained increasing recognition as evident from changes in the level of acute-phase reactants, the nonspecific markers of inflammation. [3] Furthermore, increased concentrations of the acute-phase reactant high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) appear to be predictive of higher risk for long-term cardiovascular morbidity/mortality in patients with ACS. [4] This potential predictive capacity of hsCRP warrants further evaluation alone and in conjunction with other positive acute phase reactant ceruloplasmin as well as the negative acute phase reactants (transferrin, albumin, and total cholesterol). [5],[6]

Several biomarkers of myocardial ischemia are under investigation. Serum ischemia modified albumin (IMA) is among the most thoroughly studied of these markers and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for clinical use. [6],[7] Previous studies have shown that [7],[8] IMA which is considered for use in conjunction with electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac troponins for exclusion of ACS, [9] increases in stable as well as UA but enough work has not been done in assessing the correlation between IMA and inflammatory markers in MI. Though we have gained substantial information regarding these individual parameters, enough work has not been done in assessing the correlation between these parameters. The present study was designed to assess whether correlation existed between the cobalt binding property of albumin and positive (serum hsCRP and serum ceruloplasmin) and negative (serum albumin, serum transferrin and serum total cholesterol) acute phase reactants in MI. The authors hypothesized that inflammation may not modify the cobalt binding property of albumin in patients with MI.

The aim of the present study was to observe whether IMA would significantly be altered in MI patients and also whether it would be correlated with the positive (serum hsCRP and serum ceruloplasmin) and the negative (serum albumin, serum transferrin and serum total cholesterol) acute phase reactants.


  Materials and methods Top


The present study was a hospital-based, noninterventional, cross-sectional case control study. This work was undertaken in the Department of Biochemistry of Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata in collaboration with the Department of Cardiology, Medical College and Hospitals, Kolkata, West Bengal from May 2009 to May 2010.

Subjects

Totally, 50 cases (the mean standard deviation [SD] for age is 59.64 [8.15] years) including 21 women attending the cardiology and emergency department diagnosed to have MI were selected on the basis of clinical features and ECG changes. Clinical features included chest pain lasting for >30 min, diaphoresis.

ST-segment elevation acute MI (AMI) was defined as persistent ST-segment elevation of ≥1 mm in 2 contiguous ECG leads or the presence of a new left bundle branch block in the setting of positive cardiac enzyme results. [10]

Non-STEMI was defined as the occurrence of AMI in the setting of positive cardiac enzyme results with or without accompanying ECG changes other than ST-segment elevation. [10]

Similarly, 50 age and sex matched apparently healthy individuals (the mean [SD] for age is 58.73 [7.89] years) including 23 women were selected from the relatives of patients attending the cardiology department.

The cases and controls were selected by a simple random method. All the cases and controls were informed about the purpose of the study and written consent for inclusion in the study and for the publication of the study report was obtained. The study was approved by a properly Constituted Institutional Ethical Committee of Medical College, Kolkata.

Five milliliter venous blood was collected from the median antecubital vein of the subjects within 3 h of their admission and from controls using standard aseptic technique and the collected clotted blood was centrifuged at 1500 rpm speed for 3-5 min. All the tests were done with serum harvested from clotted blood. The assays were performed on fresh samples.

Serum IMA was measured by adding a known amount of cobalt (II) to serum sample and the unbound cobalt (II) was measured by intensity of the colored complex formed by adding mercaptoethanol by colorimeter at 470 nm. One unit of IMA was defined as "mg of free Co (II) in the reaction mixture per mL of serum sample." The IMA was measured by the method described by Christenson et al. [8] and modified in Biochemistry Department of Medical College and Hospital (intra-assay coefficient of variation [CV%] was 4.81% [0.0151/0.32]). CV% was calculated by measuring cobalt binding activity of albumin of 20 samples, dividing the SD by mean value and expressed in percentage. Serum albumin was measured by bromo cresol green dye binding method [11] by XL-600 Auto analyzer (Transasia) (Intra-assay CV was 1.55% [0.067/4.33]). Serum total cholesterol was estimated by cholesterol oxidase and peroxidase method [12] (Intra-assay CV was 2.21% [3.1/139.90]).

Serum hsCRP, (Intra-assay CV was 4.77% [0.13/2.72]) was estimated by standard kits utilizing the immunoturbidimetric method. [5]

Serum ceruloplasmin (Intra-assay CV was 2.5% [0.011/0.44]) and serum transferrin (Intra-assay CV was 2.6% [0.0702/2.70]) were measured by standard kits utilizing the nephelometric method [5] in BN prospec nephelometer.

Statistical analysis

Data analysis was performed using SPSS statistical analysis software (SPSS version 17.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Statistically, significant difference was determined by the Student's t-test. All P values are two-sided, with values <0.05 considered significant. Correlation coefficients were calculated according to the Brave-Pearson function. The six parameters measured were examined whether they exhibit any bivariate and partial correlation.


  Results Top


[Table 1] displays all the results of the two groups. Results are displayed in the form of mean (SD). It displays the results of unpaired t-test for equality of means of the control population and diagnosed cases of MI. From [Table 1], it was observed that serum IMA (P < 0.0005), serum ceruloplasmin (P = 0.014) and serum hsCRP (P < 0.0005) were significantly higher in individuals with MI relative to controls. Furthermore, serum albumin (P = 0.002) and serum transferrin (P < 0.0005) were significantly less in MI cases as compared to controls. No significant difference in serum cholesterol levels was observed between the two groups (P = 0.975).
Table 1: Group statistics and test of significance (independent samples test) of different parameters between MI patients (cases) and age and sex matched healthy individuals (controls)

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[Table 2] shows the results of bivariate correlation analysis among different parameters of cases and controls. In cases with MI, there was a significant positive correlation between serum IMA and serum hsCRP. Other parameters, in MI, did not show any significant positive or negative correlation with IMA. These are summarized in [Table 2]. Controls also showed the same result as cases.
Table 2: Bivariate correlation analysis among different parameters in MI (cases) and healthy individuals (controls)

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[Table 3] shows partial correlation analyses between each parameter and IMA albumin keeping the other variables constant that is eliminating the effects of other variables. A significant partial correlation (r = 0.44, P = 0.002) had also been observed between serum IMA and serum hsCRP in case of MI.
Table 3: Partial correlations of IMA with others one eliminating the effect of remaining parameters in cases and controls

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[Table 4] displays the parameter estimates which have been obtained through multinomial logistic regression through multivariate approach using the SPSS software. This table describes that in case of MI, serum IMA, serum hsCRP, and serum transferrin play significant roles in assessing irreversible injury to myocardium having β-values of 0.324, 27.837 and −9.910 respectively.
Table 4: Multinomial logistic regression through multivariate approach

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  Discussion Top


Acute coronary syndromes encompass a spectrum of unstable coronary artery disease from UA to transmural MI in which inflammation and oxidative stress are the major contributors. [3],[4],[13] Thus, in this present work, it was our objective to find out whether suspected inflammatory process in patients with MI modifies the cobalt binding property of albumin and whether this change correlates with the other markers of inflammation which had been included in this study. That inflammation participates in atherosclerosis from its inception and development to its ultimate endpoint, that is, thrombotic complications, is evident from the data in [Table 1]. The study demonstrates that markers of inflammation viz. Serum hsCRP (P < 0.0005) and serum ceruloplasmin (P = 0.014) were significantly elevated in cases with MI in comparison to controls. Various other studies have shown a rise in acute phase reactants in MI/ACS. [14],[15],[16],[17] The present study concurred with the study of Fichtlscherer et al. [14] who in 2000 found that elevated CRP levels were independent predictors of endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. This finding was also in agreement with the works of Tomai et al. [15] and Yip et al. [16] that had shown that serum levels of hsCRP were significantly higher in patients with an onset of AMI and UA. These findings were further corroborated by the work of Schiele et al., in 2010 who emphasized that elevated CRP level is a modest but independent risk factor in ACS patients, [17] again supported by present study [vide [Table 4]].

In the present study, serum ceruloplasmin (P = 0.014) had been found to be significantly higher in individuals with MI relative to controls. This rise in case of serum ceruloplasmin was also consistent with the work of Sirajwala et al. [18] The present study also concurs with the works of Reunanen et al. [19] and Zakirova [20] who concluded that high serum ceruloplasmin level is a risk factor for MI. Therefore that hsCRP and ceruloplasmin have emerged as important novel inflammatory markers in MI suggests the role of inflammation in the causation of ACS.

In cases with MI, serum IMA is significantly elevated in comparison to controls (P < 0.0005), thus suggesting altered cobalt binding activity of albumin. Similar findings have been described by different workers that IMA is increased in ACS. [8],[21],[22],[23]

Bivariate correlation analysis between parameters of MI with IMA revealed no significant correlation except serum hsCRP that showed a significant positive correlation in cases with MI (r = 0.47, P = 0.001) [Table 2]. A significant partial correlation (r = 0.44, P = 0.002) had also been observed between serum IMA and serum hsCRP in case of MI. A significant negative correlation (r = −0.282, P = 0.048) had been observed between serum total cholesterol and serum IMA. Studies by Borderie et al. [23] in 2004 showed that IMA reflected oxidative stress in patients with systemic sclerosis, and high IMA levels correlated well with other markers of oxidative stress. Kumar et al. [22] have described that IMA in normolipidemic patients may provide an index of oxidative stress and ischemia in AMI. This is in agreement with the finding of the present study as evident from multinomial logistic regression analysis [Table 4]. In the case of multi-variate analysis, serum IMA had come out as a significant marker of inflammation in MI (P = 0.035) along with serum hsCRP and serum transferrin.

Therefore, it can be concluded from this result that generation of oxidative stress in AMI is sufficient enough to alter the cobalt binding activity of albumin. It is being reflected in statistically increased level of IMA in infarction cases as compared to controls. It also can be used as a predictor of the inflammatory process and oxidative stress in MI.

Further, serum albumin (P = 0.002) had been found to be significantly lower in cases as compared to controls. These data were also in accordance with the findings of Kaysen et al. In 2001 and 2002 who had shown that ceruloplasmin and a1 acid glycoprotein (two long-lived acute-phase proteins) predict future albumin concentration [24] and correlate with fractional catabolic rate of albumin. [24],[25] They had also shown that S-albumin correlated inversely with CRP level for a CRP level >1.3 mg/dL in hemodialysis (HD) patients. [26] In addition, Zimmermann et al. [27] reported that inflammation is associated with hypoalbuminemia and increased mortality in HD patients. Study by Hartopo et al. had brought into focus low serum albumin levels and in-hospital adverse outcomes in ACS. [28] It is possible that N-terminus modification of albumin due to on-going inflammatory process in MI may not react with BCG dye, and this is probably the cause of reduced albumin in the case.

Our results showed that serum transferrin, analysis was significantly decreased in MI cases in comparison to controls (P < 0.0005). In a study by San Miguel et al. [29] it had been found out that serum transferrin had significantly decreased in case of monoclonal gammopathy, a myeloproliferative disorder confirming its role as a negative acute phase reactant. This was in agreement with Imhof et al. [30] who in 2003 in their study of the effect of alcohol consumption on systemic markers of inflammation had considered the serum transferrin as a negative acute phase reactant. In a further study by Altamura et al. [31] in 2009 it had been concluded that serum ceruloplasmin and serum transferring levels were representative of clinical status severity in acute stroke patients play a pathogenic role in stroke progression.

The present study however suffers from some limitations such as its small sample size and the heterogenous nature of the patient population being studied. Coronary angiography could not be performed in all the study subjects due to ethical, socioeconomic constraints; hence the diagnosis of MI was only clinical.


  Conclusion Top


Thus, it can be concluded from the present study that on-going inflammation modifies the cobalt binding activity of albumin in AMI, and this parameter (IMA) can be considered as a predictor of inflammation in these patients. Statistically significant positive correlation was obtained between IMA and positive acute phase reactant hsCRP in these patients. However, serum hsCRP and serum transferrin having corresponding β-values of 27.837 and −9.910 also play significant role in assessing the severity of ischemia in AMI and encourage future studies probing the role of inflammation in the causation of MI.


  Acknowledgements Top


The investigators sincerely express their gratitude to Department of Biochemistry, Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata for technical support to carry out this project. The authors are thankful to the Department of Cardiology, Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata for their guidance and support to carry out the study.

 
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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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